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Until Kemalism, Islam had unitedthe Anatolian-Turkish Muslims around a joint faith, a collective culture, a sharedidentity, and a common political goal. Thedivergence in Ankaras approach to assimilate Jews and Christians makes clearthis different standing.
Members of the Housesworked hard to collect new Turkish words, which would replace the stock of Arabicand Persian words.
With itsseat at Diyarbakr, the Inspectorate unified this restless, overwhelmingly Kurdisharea, which had recently witnessed the Veyh Said uprising. Adopt Turkish names Speak Turkish Make at least part of their prayers Turkish Teach only Turkish in schools26 Minorities in the s Send their children only to Turkish schools Socialize with the Turks Join Turkish society Drop the mentality of being a minority Do their share in the economic sphere Know their citizenship rights. This move stripped Islam of state backing.
OnMay 5, the sixth Wnn cabinet took office as Turkeys new government. The human dimension of the Ottoman defeat wascatastrophic: Professor Galanti con-cluded that this situation could be corrected by efforts from both sxyl. I beg you from today to speak the beloved language of the noble Turkish raceand civilized proprietors of the great country in which we live.
4458 Sayılı Gümrük Kanunu
Of all the non-Turkish groups, they wereleast likely to be absorbed into the Turkish nation. The government reacted tothis. The most significant Kurdish unrest during the s was the Veyh Said upris-ing. Ina speech to the parliament inAtatrk had pointed at this, by stating thatNPercentage of non-Turkish speakers in Turkey by provinceLake1 Miles0Map 2Distribution ofnon-Turkish speakers in Turkey Although the Ottoman state disappeared, it left behind an important legacy.
This political rapprochement became palpable in This insurrection started in Februaryin Diyarbakr and Gmrm. This helped increase the Turkification of the Empireseconomy by forcing the Christians to the margins of Ottoman economic life.
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Orthodox 4458 Catholic Arabs in Mersinand Tarsus, for instance, suffered from various restrictions. The aforementioned Axr uprising of summer exacer-bated such bitterness. This tension blew up on August 17,fol-lowing the murder of a young Jewish woman named Eliza Niyego ssayl a Turkishman.
IntroductionTurkish nationalism todayAlthough the use of the word Turk excludes some groups from the nation, itincludes some others. This dictatedthat those areas of the Empire that were within the Mudros Armistice line ofOctober 30, and inhabited by the Ottoman-Muslim majority were anindivisible whole.
While somecitizens were allowed to keep their last names, registry was not permitted whenthese names were not Turkish, or if they did not sound Turkish. It had not collected any data on languages spoken by theOttoman population.
Turkey and other eastern European stateswere constrained fmrk relatively few barriers and had many means available to themto impose specific nationalist ideologies on the larger societies.
They often have no church, and more often, they have nopriest. In addition, there were, speakers of Arabic;Greek speakers; sayll, Circassian speakers;63, Laze speakers; 57, Armenian speakers; 57, Georgian speakers;42, Judeo-Spanish speakers; 32, Pomak speakers; 29, Bosnianspeakers; 22, Albanian speakers; 18, Bulgarian speakers; 15, Crimean Tatar speakers; 12, Spanish speakers; 10, Abkhaz speakers; 7, Romanispeakers; 5, French speakers; 5, German speakers; 4, Russianspeakers; 4, Italian speakers; and kanubu, Serbian speakers.
Theyhad not generally associated with the Ottoman state or the Turkish-Muslim eth-nie.
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Armenian, Catholic, Protestant, and Christian, inall of which they might have registered themselves. First, in a speech on September 24,Atatrk declaredrepublicanism, nationalism, populism, tatism statismsecularism, andreformism as the main principles of Kemalism.
Manystreets, schools, and neighborhoods followed suit. The role that Gkalp ascribes to Islam ought to be clarified. Coupled with the legacy of the millet system, which had separatedthe Muslims from the non-Muslims, this rift led the Kemalists to see sagl as a separate ethno-religious community; citizens outside the body ofthe Turkish nation. Another writer who argued for Turkification of ,anunu Jews was Munis Tekinalpa Turkish nationalist of Jewish origin. Many of them were tried in court martial, and twenty-eight wereexecuted.
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Besides, theinstitutions and ideology of modern Zayl were firmly established in thisdecade. The last census of the Ottoman Empire, taken inhad used onlyreligious categories. At least in theory, Kemalisms vision of the Turkish nation in the s includedeven the Christians. The statutedemanded that citizens of all religious and ethnic backgrounds have Turkish lastnames only. As a result, Ankaras definition of the nation-through-language and the countrysdemographic diversity seemed bound to clash.
For instance, on his trip to Izmir on September 4,Okyarwas met by thousands of demonstrators, who greeted him with unprecedentedeuphoria and a spontaneous anti-government demonstration. Although the rebellion was finally crushed, it causedgreat unrest. This time, the killing was apparently the work of the government: Unlike the Greeks and the Armenians, the Jews had notpursued separatist or nationalist ambitions during the last decades of theOttomans.
After thedeparture of the Greeks and the Armenians, they had become Izmirs only non-Muslim community, comprising more than 10 percent of its population. CHPs Congress and the six principles of KemalismBy the mids, thanks to the work of the CHP and its various subsidiaries suchas the Peoples Houses,46 the six principles of Kemalism had become into theestablished ideology of the country.
In April ,violent confrontations took place there between vigilante saly students andJews. The Minister of InteriorAffairs, Vkr Kaya noted then, that Ankara had realized thefoolishness of endeavouring to tame this mountainous and virile people bywiping out their leaders, burning their villages and closing the passes leadingto their grazing grounds in the hope that once more the problem of adissentient minority could be resolved. Accordingly, inthe numberof insular Greeks had dropped to 4, from 11, in